Hypervideo

1.0 INTRODUCTION
On the World Wide Web, hypertext has provided a powerful mechanism for organizing distributed multimedia as information text-based pages augmented with image, sound and video elements. A broader basis is necessary to structure and integrate a video-centric medium, where the notion of hot-links must be redefined to consider the spatial and temporal flow of video frames. New interaction paradigms must be developed to navigate a hierarchy of hyper-linked, video-driven content called Hypervideo. Video object segmentation and object recognition tracking technology can automatically tracks designated objects throughout a series of consecutive frames. Embed time-driven events provide hotspots into the digital video. These "hotspots" can then be linked to a variety of media including URL addresses, other video/sound files, pop up text boxes, and specified frames in the same video. The hotspot itself can be highlighted, or an image can be superimposed over the hotspot, giving users a clear indication of exactly where to click. The focus of hypervideo is on the navigational issues related to browsing hyper-linked video nodes. Video-to-video linking was demonstrated at the Interactive Cinema Group (MIT Media Lab). Image mapping of timed events to frame location during video streaming establishes a linked reaction.

In traditional hypertext, nodes, links and writing spaces provide a structure for hypertext documents. In hypervideo, the framework is complicated by the temporal and spatial nature of the medium. New structural and navigational concepts have been developed to provide a unified approach towards hypervideo. The video spaces in hypervideo require a dynamic representation that encapsulates moving content, space, and time for navigation. Hypervideo requires a hierarchy to permit the creation and navigation of a network of hyper-linked video scenes. With the recent progress in video segmentation, object-tracking and content analysis techniques, objects in the frame of moving video could be automatically detected and tracked in real-time. Hot-spot linked to this segmentation and tracking can jump the user to another video, graphic or text, or show windows to all at once. An authoring tool for hypervideo must provide suitable visualization and interaction techniques to make the authoring activity intuitive for content developers. One approach to developing such a tool is to consider the authoring process for creating hypervideo.

The tool should support the different phases of conceptualization, video production, video editing and post-production, and design of narrative sequences and link opportunities. Once the video scenes are shot, the editing process could be facilitated by using the preliminary scene descriptions previously outlined by the author. Edited shots could then be transcribed with their precise times in the scene. When the edited video is captured, the scenes could then point to the digital movies themselves. Video scenes could be placed (drag-and-dropped) within specific narrative sequences. The tool would permit manipulation of the time attributes of the video scenes and their spatial positioning, using direct manipulation techniques on the video itself. Visually creating and manipulating hotspots over the relevant (moving) objects in the scene would generate the necessary position and time coordinates. A 3-D authoring and navigation tool for hypervideo, could be envisioned for multidimensional hypervideo information spaces.

2.0 AUTHORING TOOLS
Digital Renaissance, T.A.G, and Veon (formerly Ephyx) V-Active have developed new interactive Web video tools that provide clicking in the middle of a video clip to jump to another video segment, piece of text, audio clip, picture, or Web page. Interactive video has real appeal for education, advertising banners, news delivery, and electronic commerce. A QuickTime VR movie's hotspots can be used to to trigger any sort of web action. Hotspots can link to other pages, other movies, sounds, images - any kind of web media. Once you have a QTVR movie with hotspots you can assign url's to the hotspots, by adding the HOTSPOT parameter. For web sites using frames, an optional TARGET parameter can be included for each hotspot.

Potential applications for hypervideo include applicability to a wide range of experimental expression, film conceptualization, training, simulation, and electronic news delivery. It is clear that filmmakers, educators, corporate trainers, and media artists can utilize the structural and navigational scheme of hypervideo in their work. Broader research issues include 3-D representations of hypervideo. Video Software Laboratory is evaluating video object segmentation and object recognition tracking technology to automatically track designated objects throughout a series of consecutive frames. This process will embed time-driven hotspot events into the digital video. These hotspots can then be linked to a variety of media including URL addresses, other video/sound files, pop up text boxes, and specified frames in the same video. The hotspot itself can be highlighted, or an image can be superimposed over the hotspot, giving users a clear indication of exactly where to click.

A 3-D authoring and navigation tool for hypervideo, could be envisioned for multidimensional hypervideo information spaces. Video Software Laboratory is teaming with several developers to embed streaming video in 3-D Web pages with interactive hyperlinked video hotspots. An authoring process to create hypervideo, called Hypervideo in now in Alpha testing. Other research into hypervideo is ongoing at InterACT and Hypervideo-home.

3.0 VIDEO URL LINKING ISSUES
Spatial Linking: Creating an Image Map File for a Video Image Map Fill are text files that have HTML-like tags, specifying the location and action of each image map. All tags shown below are required unless otherwise stated. No negative values for numbers are allowed. Merging an Image Map file with a Video Image in Realvideo: When you have finished creating the Image Map file, you merge the Image Map text file with a .rm file using the rmmerge tool that is installed with the RealVideo Encoder. Then, you merge that .rm file with an encoded audio (.ra) or video (.rm) file.

Temporal Linking using SMIL [Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language] SMIL is a simple but powerful XML compliant, markup language that coordinates when and how multimedia files play. A SMIL file (file extension .smi) can be created with any text editor or word processor than saves output as plain text with line breaks. An example of a simple SMIL file that lists multiple media files played in sequence is shown below. RealSystems supports SMIL and allows new data types to be added. SMIL support time controlled URL jumping.  


4.0 Hypervideo through JavaScript, AJAX, and JQuery

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